FIRMITAS UTILITAS VENUSTAS
Strong Useful Beauty
Vitruvius treatise – oldest Western treatise on architecture. If missing either of the three Vitruvian treatises, it is not architecture, it is construction.
Pantheon in Rome: place of pagan worship for the gods. Made out of concrete. Romans invented concrete. Concrete production did not regain popularity until late 19th century. Oculus is the opening in the top. It is not closed. Coffers in the ceiling were splayed so the perspective is altered. Formally covered in gold. Corrects parallax in vision. The dome is a three dimensional arch introduced by the Romans. Louis Khan: “The reason the arches are so beautiful is because they are so unnecessary.”
Lalo created a staircase so sensuous that it feels like falling upward.
Symmetry is not necessary if there is balance.
Clapboards are overlapping wooden slats that are on the exterior that help shed water.
Fireplaces actually draw cold air into the house, thus very inefficient. Wood stoves revolutionized the indoor heating of houses due to the fact that heat was contained within a container.
Daub & Wattle was in-fill material in the openings of the frame. Used mud, straw and sometimes horse hair.
Half Timber Construction – where the structure of the building is exposed (usually painted) and the daub & wattle is exposed. Post & Beam also called braced frame.
Balloon Type uses rimmers. 2nd floor already in place. Difference between exposed/balloon style frames – less people can put together the latter.
Sheathing in the third planar frame can allow for triangulation in order to increase structural strength.
Chicago Windows were named such because it was used in the late 19th and early 20th century during the rebuilding of Chicago.
Double Hung can be moved up. Chicago style has two double hung over a fixed window, which is centreal.
Broaddale used cast iron for the first time. Cast iron is weaker than wrought iron. Cast iron shatters.
Louis Sullivan was Frank Lloyd Wright’s teacher. Sullivan liked organic feel – nesting/plants/flowers
Masonry – any material molded from or cut from earthwork. Stone, dirt, adobe, terra-cotta, concrete block.
Opus Incertum – inserted stone
Opus Reticulum – grid (reticulum = grid)
Opus Latiricum – lateral
Opus Mixtum – mixed up
Opus = Work
Terra Cotta = “Cooked Earth”
In the end of the 19th century, platform framing. Sheathing stabilizes the fram, stops racking back and forth.
Communities with largest houses have building covenants. This is typically to keep wealth among wealth. The size and expectation of services have risen precipitously. The concept of each individual having their own bathrooms is relatively new.
What defines domesticity? Scale vs. Dimension
Scale is a relative condition, dimension is an absolute.
Pitched roof, porch, recessed entry, scaled to sidewalk, steep pitched roofs allow for heat to collect, then vent. Shade in hot environments needed.
18th century, had “urbaphobia” – cities seen as dangerous.
A.J. Downing was one of the first architects to promote living in houses - 1840s
Victorian = “St. Anne”
Piano Nobele – “nobel level” – raised first floor. Was the dwelling zone for the rich prior to elevators.
Dodge House – Made by Gill (Lift-slab house)
Parapet is a wall that conceals a low sloped roof
Gamble (of Proctor and Gamble) house in Pasedena, CA (Green & Green Arch) Green brothers created craft cottages.
Bungalois derived from an East Indian word. “Bengala”
The Robert Llod Jones house is the only Frank Lloyd Wright house in Tulsa. Built in 1927. Address is 3600 S. Birmingham